Algorithms


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Content

About
Books
Elements
Grokking Algorithms
Introduction to Algorithms - CLRS

Languages
Notes
Links




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Algorithms

About

by Feroniba Ramin Hassani - GitHub - Twitter - started on C 21.3.2021 in Coswig (Anhalt), Germany
Best C Books of All Time - Extreme C - #9! ♥♡♥ - Amazon $31.19 - Push the limits of what C - and you - can do, with this high-intensity guide to the most advanced capabilities of C!




Books

Which is the best book on algorithms for beginners? - quora.com - Algorithms by Robert Sedgewick + Java - CLRS + Data Structure through C in Depth by S.K. Srivastav - Khan Academy -
Is CLRS a good book for beginners? - quora.com - no ... - Grokking Algorithms - Algorithm Design - edabit.com - yoreoyster.com - algoexpert.io - Algorithm Design by Jon Kleinberg and Éva Sardos - How to Think about Algorithms by Jeff Edmonds - The Algorithm Design Manual by Skiena, C examples - Algorithms Unlocked by Thomas Cormen (one author of CLRS) - Data Structures and Program Design , 1/1994 by Robert L. Kruse and Alexander J. Ryba - reader of any DSA books should be fairly comfortable with writing code, be comfortable with elementary Data-Structures such as Graphs, Trees and Lists, and should have some grasp over elementary concepts of discrete mathematics, and be familiar with basic probability involving Discrete Random Variables -
If CLRS is considered quite a hard book for beginners, what’s another great book you would recommend for beginners? - quora.com - Foundations of Algorithms, 5e by R. Neapolitan - ... - Tardos and Kleinberg is best book
33 Best Algorithms Books for Beginners - bookauthority.org
82 Data Structures and Algorithms - discuss.codechef.com

1 • Grokking Algorithms - Aditya Y. Bhargava - adit.io - 1e 2016 - 11ch 234p
2 • Algorithms Unlocked - Thomas H. Cormen - 1e 2013 - 10ch 212p
3 • How to Think About Algorithms - Jeff Edmonds - YouTube CSE 3101, 2011, 31 Lectures - 1e 2008 - 27ch 438p
4 • Introduction to the Design & Analysis of Algorithms - Anany Levitin - 3e 2012 - 12ch 546p
5 • Algorithm Design - Jon Kleinberg, Éva Sardos - 1e 2006 - 13ch 804p
6 • The Algorithm Design Manual - Steven S. Skiena - 3e 2020 - 21ch 712p
7 • Foundations of Algorithms - Richard E. Neapolitan - 5e 2015 - 12ch 766p
8 • Fundamentals of Computer Algorithms - Ellis Horowitz, Sartaj Sahni, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran - 1e 1998 - 15ch 760p
9 • Data Structures and Program Design in C++ - Robert L. Kruse and Alexander J. Ryba - 1e 2000 - 13ch 692p
10 • Introduction to Algorithms "CLRS" - Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson, Ronald L. Rivest, Clifford Stein - 3e 2009 - 35ch 1230p
11 • Algorithms in C - Robert Sedgewick - 3e 1998 (2006) - 16ch 692p
12 • Mastering Algorithms with C - Kyle Loudon - 1e 1999 - 17ch 691p
13 • Algorithms (in Java) - Robert Sedgewick, Kevin Wayne - 4e 2011 - 6ch 931p
14 • Algorithms in a Nutshell - George T. Heineman, Gary Pollice, Stanley Selkow - 2e 2016 - 12ch 366p




Elements

• first list of all elements: algorithm data_structure pseudocode sorting (selection heap bucket sequential binary merge hash-based) graphs trees queries probability approximation linked_lists
\(\sum_{k=0}^{n}{k^2 = 0^2 + 1^2 + 2^2 + 3^2 = 14}\) if n = 3 (LaTeX inline mode) - Using the summation symbol - summation symbol (sigma) - never used by itself - bottom always index, here k=0, could also be 1 or -10 etc. - top symbol shows end of summation, here n - could also be 10 or infinity \(\infty\) etc. -
$$\sum_{k=0}^{n}{k^2 = 0^2 + 1^2 + 2^2 + 3^2 = 14}$$ if n = 3 (LaTeX display mode)
Example 2: $$\sum_{n=0}^{4}{\frac{(-1)^n}{1+n} = \frac{(-1)^0}{1+0} + \frac{(-1)^1}{1+1} + \frac{(-1)^2}{1+2} + \frac{(-1)^3}{1+3} + \frac{(-1)^4}{1+4} = \frac{1}{1} + \frac{-1}{2} + \frac{1}{3} + \frac{-1}{4} + \frac{1}{5} = ... = \frac{47}{60}}$$
\(\int^b_a f(x)\,dx\) (LaTeX inline mode) - Understanding Integral Notation - (LaTeX display mode:) $$\int^b_a f(x)\,dx$$




Grokking Algorithms

Grokking Algorithms on Amazon, US $44.99 (including eBook) - by Aditya Y. Bhargava - adit.io - 1st edition, © 2016 by Manning Publications Co., all rights reserved - 11 chapters, 234 pages - Errata

contents
preface - 1 Introduction to algorithms - Binary search - Big O notation - Recap - 2 Selection sort - How memory works - Arrays and linked lists - Recap - 3 Recursion - Base case and recursive case - The stack - Recap - 4 Quicksort ... - 5 Hash tables ... - 6 Breadth-first search - 7 Dijkstra's algorithm ... - 8 Greedy algorithms ... - 9 Dynamic programming - The knapsack problem - Longest common substring - Recap - 10 K-nearest neighbors - ... - Introduction to machine learning - Recap - 11 Where to go next - Trees - Inverted indexes - The Fourier transform - Parallel algorithms - MapReduce - Bloom filters and HyperLogLog - The SHA algorithms - Locality-sensitive hashing - Diffie-Hellman key exchange - Linear programming - Epilogue - answers to exercises - index p235-238 - back cover

preface
xiii - started programming as a hobby - Visual Basic 6 for Dummies - first algorithm were impenetrable - with first good algorithms professor realized how simple and elegant these ideas were - as a visual learner, written on functional programming, Git, machine learning, and concurrency - started out as a mediocre writer - easy to gloss over the hard stuff - coworker complained: still don't understand your writing - Maqnning asked to write illustrated book - aim: explain hard topics well, write easy-to-read algorithms book - acknowledgments to many, and to CLRS, Knuth, Strang - ...

about this book
xv - book easy to follow, avoids big leaps of thought (Gedankensprünge) - reinforced with exercises - author leads with examples, so recall is easier, visual, book full of images - not all, but practical algorithms, good foundation for more complex topics

Roadmap
ch1-11 ...

How to use this book
order of content carfully designed - feel free to jump ahead - still chapters build on each other - strongly recommend executing example codes, download from GitHub - do the exercises in this book, they are short, usually just a minute or two, sometimes 5 to 10, they will help you check your thinking, so you’ll know when you’re off track before you’ve gone too far
Who should read this book:
who knows basics of coding, wants to understand algorithms - • Hobbyist coders • Coding boot camp students • Computer science grads looking for a refresher • Physics/math/other grads who are interested in programming
Code conventions and downloads:
all codes in python 2.7, written in fixed width font with <kbd> (inline), or with <pre> (auto-new line):

fixed width font
and again auto-new line - code annotations accompany some of the listings, highlighting important concepts - you learn best when you really enjoy learning - so have fun, and run the code samples!
About the author: ...
Author online: ...

ch1 - introduction to algorithms

p1 - In this chapter • foundation for rest of book • write first search algorithm (binary search) • learn how to talk about running time of an algorithm (Big O notation) • you’re introduced to common technique for designing algorithms (recursion)

Introduction
algorithm is set of instructions to accomplish a task - every piece of code could be called algorithm ... - author chose only fast algorithms or/and those solving interesting problems for book - some highlights: ... - will always describe algorithm, give example, and running time in Big O notation, explore what other types of problems could be solved by same algorithm - implementation of every algorithm in this book probably available in favorite language - but must understand trade-offs (Austausch), for examplev use merge sort or quicksort, use array or list? Usind different data structures makes difference

What you’ll learn about solving problems

a b cdefgh ijkl mn op q r s t u v w xy z öäüß

Vocabulary
curate - ... - xv
gloss over - beschönigen, bemänteln, glossieren, glanzpressen - xiii
grok - begreifen, kapieren, schnallen ... - xiii
impenetrable - undurchdringbar, undurchdringlich, unzugänglich ... - xiii
leaps of thought - Gedankensprünge - xv
lest - damit nicht, dass nicht - xviii
mediocre writer - mittelmäßig, zweitklassig, niveaulos, unbedeutend - xiii
reinforce - verstärken, bekräftigen ... - xv
assumption - Annahme, Vermutung, Unterstellung ... - xv
savor - verkosten, genießen, etw. auf der Zunge vergehen lassen ... - xiii
trade-off - Ausgleich, Abstrich, Austausch ... - p2




Introduction to Algorithms - CLRS - 3e

Introduction to Algorithms "CLRS" - Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson, Ronald L. Rivest, Clifford Stein - 3e 2009 - 35ch 1230p

Preface

xiii - algorithms before computers were there - each ch presents an algorithm ... - presented in English and pseudocode - book 244 figures how alg works - analysis of running times - ... book suitable for self-study - ...

To the teacher
...


To the student
xiv - ... - prerequisites: • some programming experience - recursive procedures - simple data structures such as arrays andlinked lists • facility with mathematical proofs, especially proofs by mathematical induction - elementary calculus - beyond that, Parts I and VIII of this book teach you all the mathematical techniques you will need - solutions for some exercises -

...




1 • Linux Ubuntu (Mac Windows etc.) install and adjust

#include <stdio.h>

int main(void) {
    printf("hello, world\n");
   
    return 0;
}

... more coming soon ...




ch1 to ch25

p... - ... coming soon ♡ ♥ ♡ ...




ch25 - basic examples - small programs of all kinds

p...-... - ...

Next steps:
Raspberry Pi - Arduino - Linux analysis - build our own operating system, language, servers, network, AT SS - build L community international, online forum, political party with laws assuring peace and happiness for everyone ♡ ♥ ♡

End of book :-))) ♡ ♥ ♡




Languages

Binary Assembly C Bash Java Python JavaScript Perl Forth Tcl HTML CSS CoffeeScript CoffeeCup ...




Path to Programming and Algorithms

(read bottom to top)
• starting machine learning and deep learning - AI
• starting with algorithms and math - R (read) and workout best books
• switching from OSX Macbook to Linux Ubuntu and Kali
• ...
• leaving LR (learning) Python for LR C
• LR (learning) HTML CSS JS to build own websites like this one




Notes

Machines for world knowledge 300 Exabytes, ship SH and spaceship SS - Computers should do what humans want them to do - input output - keyboard pad touchscreen cam mic controller etc. - based binary - ASM and C needed - terminal - IN HTML CSS JS WASM - Arduino Rapberry PI etc. - Linux - games animation sounddesign graficdesign - art FP MP WR - O MG

Chrome: Ctrl F5 > reload tab




Links

IDL Webdesign - HTML Workshop




Sessions

Session 1 • Thu 2021-3-18 Coswig (Anhalt) 23:15-3:40 WR cfo.html - start ♡♡♡